Chadwick Boseman To Play Black Panther For Marvel

 

 

Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was the largest state in African history and the most powerful of the medieval west African states. It expanded rapidly beginning with King Sonni Ali in the 1460s and by 1500s, it had risen to stretch from Cameroon to the Maghreb. In 1360, disputes over succession weakened the Mali Empire, and in the 1430s, Songhai, previously a Mali dependency, gained independence under the Sonni Dynasty. Around thirty years later, Sonni Sulayman Dama attacked Mema, the Mali province west of Timbuktu, paving the way for his successor, Sonni Ali, to turn his country into one of the greatest empires Saharan Africa has ever seen.

Perhaps, it’s most popular leader was Muhammad Askia the Great. At its peak, the Songhai city of Timbuktu became a thriving cultural and commercial center. Arab, Italian and Jewish merchants all gathered for trade. By 1500, the Songhai Empire covered over 1.4 million square kilometers.

http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/12/05/7-midieval-african-kingdoms/2/

http://www.blackpast.org/gah/songhai-empire-ca-1375-1591

http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/songhai-african-empire-15-16th-century

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/sghi/hd_sghi.htm

Mali Empire

After the fall of the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire rose to dominate West Africa. Located on the Niger River to the west of Ghana in what is today Niger and Mali, the empire reached its peak in the 1350s.

The Mali Empire was founded by Mansa (King) Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa. He was the grandson of Sundiata’s half-brother, and led Mali at a time of great prosperity, during which trade tripled. During his rule, Mansa Musa doubled the land area of Mali; it became a larger kingdom than any in Europe at the time.

The cities of Mali became important trading centers for all of West Africa, as well as famous centers of wealth, culture and learning. Timbuktu, an important city in Mali, became one of the major cultural centers not only of Africa but of the entire world. Vast libraries and Islamic universities were built. These became meeting places of the finest poets, scholars and artists of Africa and the Middle East.

The Kingdom of Mali had a semi-democratic government with one of the world’s oldest known constitutions – The Kurukan Fuga.

Read more: http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/12/05/7-midieval-african-kingdoms/2/

http://www.blackpast.org/gah/mali-empire-ca-1200

http://africa.si.edu/exhibits/resources/mali/

The few written accounts about ancient Mali were recorded by Arab travelers and scholars. One of the most famous travelogues is Rihlah by the African-born Ibn Battuta (1304-1368/9), a great Arab traveler of the time. Rihlah describes life in Mali between 1352 and 1353/4 and records his travels to Anatolia (current-day Turkey), Crimea, east Africa, Persia (present-day Iran), India, Cylon, Sumatra, North Africa and perhaps China. Although other written accounts of the ancient West African empires exist, Ibn Battuta is one of the few who actually traveled to this area and wrote from personal experience.

http://africa.si.edu/exhibits/resources/mali/

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mali/hd_mali.htm

Kingdom of Ghana

Centered in what is today Senegal and Mauritania, the Kingdom of Ghana dominated West Africa between about 750 and 1078 A.D. Famous to North Africans as the “Land of Gold,” Ghana was said to possess sophisticated methods of administration and taxation, large armies, and a monopoly over notoriously well-concealed gold mines.

The king of the Soninke people who founded Ghana never fully embraced Islam, but good relations with Muslim traders were fostered. Ancient Ghana derived power and wealth from gold and the use of the camel increased the quantity of goods that were transported. One Arab writer, Al-Hamdani, describes Ghana as having the richest gold mines on Earth. Ghana was also a great military power. According to one narrative, the king had at his command 200,000 warriors and an additional 40,000 archers.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter1.shtml

http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/12/05/7-midieval-african-kingdoms/

http://themedievalages.weebly.com/africa-ancient-ghana.html

http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-ancient-history/ancient-ghana.html

http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/history/ancient_ghana.php

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ghan/hd_ghan.htm

Axum Empire

The Aksum or Axum Empire was an important military power and trading nation in the area that is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, existing from approximately 100 to 940 A.D.

At its height, it was one of only four major international superpowers of its day along with Persia, Rome and China. Axum controlled northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, southern Egypt, Djibouti, Western Yemen, and southern Saudi Arabia, totaling 1.25 million square kilometers, almost half the size of India. Axum traded and projected its influence as far as China and India, where coins minted in Axum were discovered in 1990.

Axum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini’s theories —but most scholars now agree that when it was founded it was an indigenous African development.

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/11794/Aksum

http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/12/05/7-midieval-african-kingdoms/

http://www.blackpast.org/gah/axum-ca-100-b-c-e-ca-650-d

Click to access KingdomOfAksum_TeachersNotes.pdf

Septimius Severus: First African Ruler of Rome

There has been a lot of debates about Septimius and if he had any ancestral ties to Saharan Africans.

The birth of Septimius Severus in 145 A.D. is celebrated on this date. He was a North African General and Ruler of the Roman Empire.

From Leptis Magna in Tripolitinia, near the modern day city of Al Khums in Libya, Some scholars claim that he was a Berber, and others claim that he was Punic. Severus reigned as emperor from 193 to 211. His father was Publius Septimus Geta and his mother was Fulvia Pia. Both his mother and father descended from members of successful equestrian families who had strong political ties. Little is known about his early background or career, but Severus became quaestor of Rome around 169 A.D. Shortly after becoming quaestor he married Paccia Marciana his first wife of 10 years, she was African as well; a few years later she died, childless. After her death he married Julia Domna, from a prominent Syrian family. They had two sons, who later became Caesars themselves.

http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/septimius-severus-african-ruler-rome

Septimus severus wasn’t black you clown.  he was of a Roman equestrian family (noble) from Libya his mother was Ethnic Italian/Roman and his father was Punic, a western Semitic speaking people with mixed heritage. (Phoenicians and Amazigh/Berber) Punics looked like the average semitic people (Arabs, Berbers, Jews)  none of these people are black.

Just because a person is from North Africa doesn’t make that person black. The Dynasty that followed was even more mixed. E.g. The wife of Semptimus Severus was Syrian, so his sons were Italian/Punic/Syrian. NO ONE in the Severus Dynasty that followed was black African.

You people need to get the fuck over your slave mentality, the only idiots who believe shit like this are African Americans (without proper education)

PS. I am not European, Italian, Arab, Semitic, Syrian, or related to ANY of these people. These are simply FACTS. Unless you can provide facts that prove otherwise don’t make such retarded claims.

By 3choBlaster

From my point of view and looking at the evidence, I don’t know. What I do know though is Berbers were Saharan African desert nomads who created a culture/dynasty that dominated all of North Africa and Southern Europe. What I do know is Semitic people can be East Africans, and if Septimius was also a person from Berber/Punic ancestry/ethnicty, then part of his ancestry would be Saharan African.

Semitic Definition:

relating to or denoting a family of languages that includes Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic and certain ancient languages such as Phoenician and Akkadian, constituting the main subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic family.

Semitic People:

  1. Person speaking one of a group of related languages, presumably derived from a common language, Semitic (see Semitic languages). The term came to include Arabs, Akkadians, Canaanites, some Ethiopians, and Aramaean tribes including Hebrews.
     
    (Languages) a branch or subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages that includes Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Amharic, and such ancient languages as Akkadian and Phoenician
     
    A member of a group of Semitic-speaking peoples of the Near East and northern Africa, including the Arabs, Arameans, Babylonians, Carthaginians, Ethiopians, Hebrews, and Phoenicians.

Moors: The Collection Online

Moorish king

Date: second half 18th century
Culture: Italian (Naples)
Medium: Polychromed terracotta head and wooden limbs; body of wire wrapped in tow; satin, silk and velvet garments; silver and gold metallic thread; glass buttons; coral beads and pearls; silver-gilt crown
Dimensions: a) H. 15 1/4 in. (38.7 cm.); b) Diam. 2 3/4 in. (7 cm.)
Classification: Crèche
Credit Line: Gift of Loretta Hines Howard, 1964
Accession Number: 64.164.82a, b

The “Moors” of Europe

Variants of the term “Moor” have been used by many Europeans since ancient times as a general description for indigenous Africans. Contrary to popular belief, the term is not synonymous with “Islamic” or any specific Arab or African religion, civilization, or ethnicity.

The origin of the English term, “Moor,” is the Greek word, “μαυρο” or “mavro” which literally means “black, blackened or charred” and has long been used to describe black or very dark things such as, “Mavri Thalassa” which refers to the Black Sea or “mavri spilia” which means “black cave.” Ancient Greeks used the term to describe the complexion of Africans and (even today, some Greeks use “mavro” to refer to Africans, although in a pejorative manner).

The artist, Christopher Wren (1632-1723), specifically entitled this painting, “Le Maure”, French for “The Moor”

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