Kingdom of Mapungubwe (1075–1220): Lost City of Gold

The kingdom of Mapungubwe was a pre-colonial state in southern Africa located at the confluence of the Shashe and Limpopo rivers south of Great Zimbabwe. The kingdom, which built stone walls to mark important areas, was the first stage in a development that would culminate in the creation of the kingdom of Zimbabwe in the 13th century and with gold-trading links to Rhapta and Kilwa Kisiwani on the African east coast. The kingdom of Mapungubwe lasted about 70 years. At its height, its population was about 5,000 people.

One thousand years ago, Mapungubwe in Limpopo province was the centre of the largest kingdom in the subcontinent, where a highly sophisticated people traded gold and ivory with China, India and Egypt.

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCpeEP1cpJj6fEjeCNzopt-g

Read more: http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/mapungubwe.htm#ixzz3HggZRudy

http://www.taneter.org/southafrica.html

http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/mapungubwe

http://www.sahistory.org.za/kingdoms-southern-africa-mapungubwe

http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/mapungubwe.htm

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mapu/hd_mapu.htm

Ajuran Empire (13th century – late 17th century )

The Ajuran Sultanate was a Somali Muslim empire that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages. The empire left an extensive architectural legacy, being one of the major medieval Somali powers engaged in castle- and fortress-building. Many of the ruined fortifications dotting the landscapes of southern Somalia today are attributed to the Ajuran Sultanate’s engineers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajuran_Sultanate

http://operationoverload.wordpress.com/2009/04/29/the-ajuuraan-dynasty-of-the-hawiyya/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olol_Dinle

http://atlantablackstar.com/2014/10/24/10-african-kingdoms-no-one-talks-about-but-should/5/

Lunda Empire (circa 1665-1887)

The kingdom of Lunda was a pre-colonial African confederation of states in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, northeastern Angola and northwestern Zambia. With a base of 175,000 inhabitants, the Lunda Kingdom controlled about 150,000 square kilometers by 1680, but the state doubled in size at its height in the 19th century.  

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/luba/hd_luba.htm

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/351424/Lunda-empire

http://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Lunda

http://epicworldhistory.blogspot.com/2012/06/luba-lunda.html

Baguirmi Kingdom

The kingdom of Baguirmi existed as an independent state during the 16th and 17th centuries southeast of Lake Chad in what is now the country of Chad. Baguirmi emerged to the southeast of the Kanem-Bornu Empire. The kingdom’s first ruler was Mbang Birni Besse. During periods of strength, the sultanate became imperialistic. It established control over small feudal kingdoms on its peripheries and entered into alliances with nearby nomadic people.

http://atlantablackstar.com/2014/10/24/10-african-kingdoms-no-one-talks-about-but-should/3/

http://countrystudies.us/chad/7.htm

http://books.google.com/books?id=kkB1GaR2SXEC&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=Baguirmi+Kingdom&source=bl&ots=Ane_bGK7bJ&sig=4e6G5gc-5ixx0hdKrty13fYPuSw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=pPJSVLPoMc-0yAS444K4CA&ved=0CFIQ6AEwCw#v=onepage&q=Baguirmi%20Kingdom&f=false

Sao Civilization (sixth century B.C. to late 16th century A.D.)

The Sao civilization flourished in Middle Africa from around the sixth century B.C. to as late as the 16th century A.D. The Sao lived by the Chari River south of Lake Chad in territory that later became part of Cameroon and Chad. Sao artifacts show that they were skilled workers in bronze, copper and iron.

http://atlantablackstar.com/2014/10/24/10-african-kingdoms-no-one-talks-about-but-should/

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/523440/Sao

http://www.memoiredafrique.com/en/sao/culture.php

http://antiquesartmuseum.com/sao-civilization.html

http://www.awayto.biz/sao-arts.html

Bornu Empire (1380–1893)

The Bornu Empire was a state of what is now northeastern Nigeria. It was a continuation of the great Kanem Empire founded centuries earlier by the Sayfawa Dynasty. In time, it would become even larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad, Niger and Cameroon.

http://atlantablackstar.com/2014/10/24/10-african-kingdoms-no-one-talks-about-but-should/

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/74323/Bornu

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Bornu_Empire

Queens of Jazz: The Joy and Pain of the Jazz Divas

Billie Holiday; Billie Holiday’s Story

http://www.billieholiday.com/

http://www.pbs.org/jazz/biography/artist_id_holiday_billie.htm

http://www.biography.com/people/billie-holiday-9341902

The Nicholas Brothers Story

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/875238/Nicholas-Brothers

http://www.biography.com/people/groups/the-nicholas-brothers

You need to know; Rob Pruitt

Robert Pruitt’sWomen, currently on exhibition at the Studio Museum of Harlem, is a series of 20 portraits of contemporary black women embodying such graceful restraint that they become curative in the present moment.

Drawn on brown butcher paper with conté-crayons, every single one is more majestic then the last. As stated in the description, “each figure is at once politically charged, physically grounded and fantastic — a blend of willful self-determination and culturally conditioned myth.” Whether standing or seated, they possess a magnetic poise in their hypervisibility that beckons the viewer. Pruitt’s models are his friends and members of his community. His aesthetic influences, a remix of science fiction, Hip Hop and comic books refashion his subjects according to Priscilla Frank as grounded “shape-shifters” with a “cosmic sense of cool”.

Read more:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gina-athena-ulysse/immeasurable-inspiration-_b_3638885.html

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/22/robert-pruitt_n_3618183.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/09/arts/design/drawings-by-robert-pruitt-at-studio-museum-in-harlem.html

http://www.studiomuseum.org/exhibition/robert-pruitt-women

Also Google’s search engine ^_^.

https://www.google.com/search?q=Robert+Pruitt&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=itxRVO6zNIugyQTu0IGIAw&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAg&biw=1600&bih=799#imgdii=_

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