Executive Orders By U.S Presidents

If it’s unprecedented, it’s because of the scope of the executive action, not the executive action itself. For decades, executive orders have been a fairly common tool for U.S. presidents. We looked atdata from the American Presidency Project and found that the use of executive orders peaked in the era of the New Deal (FDR set the record) and has been on the decline since. In the past 100 years, Democrats have used them more than Republicans. Here’s every president’s tally per year that he served in office.

On February 19, 1942, two months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066. In this one-page decree, the president used his authority as the commander-in-chief to authorize theU.S. military to “exclude” 122,000 Japanese Americans — more than half of them U.S. citizens — from their homes and businesses and relocate them to isolated and desolate internment camps

. A month later, Congress passed Public Law 503, making it a federal offense to disobey the president’s executive order.

An executive order, also known as a proclamation, is a directive handed down directly from a president or governor (the executive branch of government) without input from the legislative or judicial branches. Executive orders can only be given to federal or state agencies, not to citizens, although citizens are indirectly affected by them.

Executive orders have been used by every American president since George Washington to lead the nation through times of war, to respond to natural disasters and economic crises, to encourage or discourage regulation by federal agencies, to promote civil rights, or in the case of the Japanese internment camps, to revoke civil rights. Executive orders can also be used by governors to direct state agencies, often in response to emergencies, but also to promote the governor’s own regulatory and social policies.

http://fivethirtyeight.com/datalab/every-presidents-executive-actions-in-one-chart/

President Term

Total Orders1

Average / Year Years in Office EO Number Range
George Washington Total 8 1.02 7.85 unnumbered
John Adams Total 1 0.25 4.00 unnumbered
Thomas Jefferson Total 4 0.50 8.00 unnumbered
James Madison Total 1 0.13 8.00 unnumbered
James Monroe Total 1 0.13 8.00 unnumbered
John Quincy Adams Total 3 0.75 4.00 unnumbered
Andrew Jackson Total 12 1.50 8.00 unnumbered
Martin van Buren Total 10 2.50 4.00 unnumbered
William Henry Harrison Total 0 0 0.08 unnumbered
John Tyler Total 17 4.34 3.92 unnumbered
James K. Polk Total 18 4.50 4.00 unnumbered
Zachary Taylor Total 5 3.70 1.35 unnumbered
Millard Fillmore Total 12 4.53 2.65 unnumbered
Franklin Pierce Total 35 8.75 4.00 unnumbered
James Buchanan Total 16 4.00 4.00 unnumbered
Abraham Lincoln Total 48 11.65 4.12 unnumbered
Andrew Johnson Total 79 20.31 3.89 unnumbered
Ulysses S. Grant Total 217 27.13 8.00 unnumbered
Rutherford B. Hayes Total 92 23.00 4.00 unnumbered
James Garfield Total 6 10.91 0.55 unnumbered
Chester Arthur Total 96 27.75 3.46 unnumbered
Grover Cleveland – I Total 113 28.25 4.00 unnumbered
Benjamin Harrison Total 143 35.75 4.00 unnumbered
Grover Cleveland – II Total 140 35.00 4.00 unnumbered
William McKinley Total 185 40.84 4.53 unnumbered
Theodore Roosevelt Total 1,081 144.71 7.47
William Howard Taft Total 724 181.00 4.00
Woodrow Wilson Total 1,803 225.38 8.00
Warren G. Harding Total 522 216.60 2.41
Calvin Coolidge Total 1,203 215.21 5.59
Herbert Hoover Total 968 242.00 4.00 5075 – 6070
Franklin D. Roosevelt Total 3,721 307.01 12.12 6071 – 9537
Harry S. Truman Total 907 116.58 7.78 9538 – 10431
I 504 133.33 3.78 9538 – 10029
II 403 100.75 4.00 10030 – 10431
Dwight D. Eisenhower Total 484 60.50 8.00 10432 – 10913
I 266 66.50 4.00 10432 – 10695-A
II 218 54.50 4.00 10696 – 10913
John F. Kennedy Total 214 75.35 2.84 10914 – 11127
Lyndon B. Johnson Total 325 62.86 5.17 11128 – 11451
Richard Nixon Total 346 62.34 5.55 11452 – 11797
I 247 61.75 4.00 11452 – 11698
II 99 63.87 1.55 11699 – 11797
Gerald R. Ford Total 169 68.98 2.45 11798 – 11966
Jimmy Carter Total 320 80.00 4.00 11967 – 12286
Ronald Reagan Total 381 47.63 8.00 12287 – 12667
I 213 53.25 4.00 12287 – 12499
II 168 42.00 4.00 12500 – 12667
George Bush Total 166 41.50 4.00 12668 – 12833
William J. Clinton Total 364 45.50 8.00 12834 – 13197
I 200 50.00 4.00 12834 – 13033
II 164 41.00 4.00 13034 – 13197
George W. Bush Total 291 36.38 8.00 13198 – 13488
I 173 43.25 4.00 13198 – 13370
II 118 29.50 4.00 13371 – 13488
Barack Obama Total 193 33.10 5.83 13489 – 13681
I 147 36.75 4.00 13489 – 13635
II 46 25.14 1.83 13636 – 13681
Note: Obama EO counts are updated monthly following the 20th day of the month to recompute average per year. Orders issued between updates can be accessed here:
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/executive_orders.php?year=2014

http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/orders.php

http://people.howstuffworks.com/executive-order.htm

Gumbo Origin and Words of African Origin

Gumbo: Derived from various Bantu dialects (Southern & Central Africa) terms for okra (i.e. quingumbo, grugombo, gumbo, gombo, ngombo gomboaud, ngumbo, ochinggombo).

Gumbo is often cited as an example of the melting-pot nature of Louisiana cooking, but trying to sort out the origins and evolution of the dish is highly speculative. The name derives from a West African word for okra, suggesting that gumbo was originally made with okra. The use of filé (dried and ground sassafras leaves) was a contribution of the Choctaws and, possibly, other local tribes. Roux has its origin in French cuisine, although the roux used in gumbos is much darker than its Gallic cousins.

One of the things I love about the U.S is its’ cultural diversity/expressiveness, though we don’t celebrate it properly all of the time.

Words of Africa Origin

The books are Newbell Niles Puckett’s Black Names in America: Origins and Usage, which was published in 1975; Winifred Kellersberger Vass’ The Bantu Speaking Heritage of the United States published in 1979; Gerard Matthew Dalgish’s A Dictionary of Africanisms: Contributions of Sub-Saharan Africa to the English Language published in 1982; Joseph E. Holloway’s Africanisms in American Culture published in 1990; and Joseph E Holloway’s and Winifred Kellersberger Vass’ The African Heritage of American English published in 1993.

A distinct feature of the English language is its extensive borrowing from other languages. According to some

sources, only about 30 percent of the vocabulary we use in modern English is derived from the native tongue itself, that is, from Anglo-Saxon—English prior to about 1100. The rest is derived from an amalgam of different languages, leading some to call the English language a “loaned language.”

https://www.southernfoodways.org/oral-history/southern-gumbo-trail/

http://allafrica.com/stories/201307291505.html

http://www.translationdirectory.com/glossaries/glossary151.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_African_origin

http://www.taneter.org/moors.html

http://www.worldwidewords.org/qa/qa-jaz1.htm

http://www.foodreference.com/html/artgumbo.html

https://www.southernfoodways.org/interview/a-short-history-of-gumbo/

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/neworleans/sfeature/food.html

Exploring New Orleans in 48 Hours

Sports Channels: Nnamdi Asomugha

Sojourner Truth: American History

Synopsis

Born in New York circa 1797, Sojourner Truth was the self-given name, from 1843 onward, of Isabella Baumfree, an African-American abolitionist and women’s rights activist. Truth was born into slavery in Swartekill, New York, but escaped with her infant daughter to freedom in 1826. Her best-known speech on racial inequalities, “Ain’t I a Woman?”, was delivered extemporaneously in 1851 at the Ohio Women’s Rights Convention.

http://www.biography.com/people/sojourner-truth-9511284

http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/truth/1850/1850.html

http://www.pbs.org/thisfarbyfaith/people/sojourner_truth.html

10 Years of Howard Zinn’s “Voices of a People’s History”

%d bloggers like this: