The History of Major Slave Revolts; Americas and the Caribbean

The exact statistics of how many slave rebellions and revolts that took place are unknown, but historical records show there were many. American Negro Slave Revolts, by Herbert Aptheker concluded that there were at least 250 slave revolts within the United States alone prior to the year 1865, in addition to localized opposition. On record was also mutiny aboard slave ships, 155 on record; many success stories and many brutally suppressed mutinies.

According to African American Desk Reference, as early as 1522, slaves in Saint Domingue rose up in an attempt to create a African Republic; rebellious slaves destroyed the settlement of Santa Maria in Columbia.

Here are more recorded revolts.

1653 In Gloucester Virginia, a plot was betrayed by a man named Berkenhead (A White indentured servant); he was rewarded his freedom and 5,000 pounds of tobacco.

1658 Black slaves aided by Native Americans burned their masters’ homes in Hartford Connecticut.

1691 Mingoe, a Virginia slave escaped from his master; Mingoe gathered a group of followers and destroyed a number of plantations, mainly in Rappahannock County. The rebels acquired cattle, hogs and some guns. Sadly there wasn’t any documented account about their fate.

Discrimination against free blacks was more severe in Connecticut than in other New England colonies. Their lives were strongly proscribed even before they became numerous. In 1690, the colony forbade blacks and Indians to be on the streets after 9 p.m. It also forbid black “servants” to wander beyond the limits of the towns or places where they belonged without a ticket or pass from their masters or the authorities. A law of 1708, citing frequent fights between slaves and whites, imposed a minimum penalty of 30 lashes on any black who disturbed the peace or who attempted to strike a white person. Even speech was subject to control. By a 1730 law, and black, Indian, or mulatto slave “who uttered or published, about any white person, words which would be actionable if uttered by a free white was, upon conviction before any one assistant or justice of the peace, to be whipped with forty lashes.”

http://slavenorth.com/connecticut.htm

For more slave rebellions and revolts, go to Schomberg Center for research in Black culture; African American Desk Reference. 

Generation One

Fran Harris talks Wealth Building

History

http://sincereignorance.com/2014/08/06/black-americans-american-west-cowboys-towns-2/

http://sincereignorance.com/2014/08/06/black-americans-american-west-cowboys-towns/

David Walker: One of the Greatest Appeals Ever Written

David Walker and Maria Stewart (Maria will be touched upon in a separate piece) was the precursor to Black nationalism and unity. David expressed how he felt about both the Republican and Democratic party; they didn’t care about the plight of African Americans. He felt that people of African descent had a right to be treated as equals under the law and deserved respect for building The United States of America. It wasn’t just African Americans free-labor that propelled the U.S into the forefront, but their ingenuity as well. Creating crops like rice, knowing how to work the land more efficiently than their European counter-parts. The few who came over as free peoples and the vast majority who came over as slaves brought needed skills with them. Skills that if left absent would have made America a footnote in history.

This invigorated freedom fighting spirit is what made David Walker public enemy number one in the U.S, because he didn’t sugarcoat anything to make it more palatable to White society.

http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/walker/walker.html

People have to comprehend that the Puritan work ethic as Martin Luther King eloquently stated, didn’t build America; Black Americans did. Free Black Americans were taxed higher than any other ethnic group. (Which still lives on today in many areas of the U.S like Ferguson). Every facet within Black culture was marginalized, while being used as profit at the same time.

People of African descent did not sit back to leave their fate within the hands of White society. Unlike popular belief, the major reason why slavery was abolished was due to the tenacity of African Americans/Caribbean/South America. From the slave revolts, to the creation of Abolitionist, and to their uncompromising integrity.

African Meeting House

INTRODUCTION

The Black Heritage Trail is a walking tour that explores the history of Boston’s 19th century African American community.

Read more:

http://www.afroammuseum.org/trail.htm

http://www.afroammuseum.org/trail.htm

Crossroads: A Story Inspired By Robert Johnson

https://i1.wp.com/image.tmdb.org/t/p/original/yz4Pc1FTiZNs8z1EhNZqocVJho7.jpg

I held my guitar, strumming the strings to hear its cool twang echo bounce through the forest as I stepped up the moonlit dirt road. I thought I was pretty good. Some said I had talent, but I was never talented enough to step on stage.

But that was about to change. I reached an intersection, where four worn roads came together. By this time, the forest was behind me and there was nothing but miles of sweeping Mississippi farmland coating the earth. The distant, pained howl of a hound lingered in the night air for a second before fading into silence.

A man stood in the center of the crossroads, dressed in a sharp gray suit with a fedora tipped sideways atop his head. The look in his dreary blue eyes sent a whirlwind of doubt ripping though my subconscious. I stopped within six feet of him; a lump filled my throat.

“I believe you know how this works, right?” he asked, his voice as pale as his skin.

I nodded and swallowed my uncertainty. I stepped closer to present my guitar to him.

His eyes widened. “I suppose not. We’ve changed policy, dear.”

Before I could raise an eyebrow, he slipped a hand into his jacket, pulled out a sleek pen and a sheet of paper— offering it to me. I placed my guitar on the ground, next to his briefcase, and took the instrument.

“Sign the dotted line, please,” he said.

The paper was strong enough to write on without need for a clipboard and it was glazed with legal jargon. Some words I couldn’t even pronounce, let alone understand.

“Midnight doesn’t last forever,” he said after a few minutes.

Fearless of sin, I scribbled my name in pen. The signature glowed a bright blue, but the ink started to sizzle and smolder to a coal black. There was a blank section below the signature line which filled itself in with words that formed my biography. Before I could speak, the man snatched the paper back and scanned it.

He arched an eyebrow. “Keisha Williams? Born in New Orleans, sixteen-years-old, and second daughter of James and Angela Williams?”

I nodded.

He bit his lip. “I see, and what do you plan to do when you’re a rich and famous musician?”

I paused for a second. “Charity,” I admitted.

A thin mocking smirk played on his lips. “For the hurricane, I assume.”

“Yes.”

He tore the paper to pieces and blew them into the humid air. Like fireflies, the pieces lit up the night sky before fading into darkness.

The man then reached into the breast-pocket of his jacket, taking out a red pack of cigarettes and a pack of matches. He shook a thin single out and plopped it between his lips. “Please don’t try to undo our work, Ms. Williams. You have a good evening.”

He struck a match and a bright flash nearly blinded me; my eyes slammed shut. The flames crackled like witches. When my eyes flicked open, he was gone. The dirt beneath me was covered in dark soot.

My guitar sat next to my sneakers as a pile of black ash. Left were the twisted metal strings protruding from the instrument’s charred remains.

Law school it is, then.

————————————–

Robert Johnson was the inspiration for this story. I felt it could’ve went in a better direction, but I see these shorts I’m posting as literary exercise than anything else. Decent to be written in a day I’d hope.

https://i0.wp.com/www.sacurrent.com/imager/king-of-the-delta-blues-robert-johnson/b/original/2401841/9337/cityguide48-1.jpg

Robert Johnson was a 30’s blue musician, passing away at the age of 27 and joining the legendary 27 Club (with Kurt Cobain and Jimi Hendrix), Johnson left a huge dent in music despite his short tenure in blues. In the 60’s his re-released works grew immensely popular and went on to inspire many white and black powerhouse artists of the day.

It’s always been according to legend that Johnson made a deal with the Devil to play the guitar the way he did. That, coupled with the fact little is known about Johnson’s life besides his music career and his early demise, and you have yourself the music blues legend.

Things like this “alleged footage” increase the spookiness factor.

The idea of the crossroads has always interested me. Standing alone by yourself, making a choice in which direction to go. Or hoping to meet something of supernatural origin to strike a deal that you’d soon regret.

Check out some of Johnson’s music:

Sources:

http://www.robertjohnsonbluesfoundation.org/biography

http://www.biography.com/people/robert-johnson-9356324

https://i0.wp.com/fc03.deviantart.net/fs45/i/2009/124/6/f/Robert_Johnson_by_jugodenaranjo.jpg

A Will to Live Written by Priscilla Brown and Sung by Derreck McLaughlin

A Will to Live

Africans and The Making of the Americas: Part 4, Agriculture

There was a desperate need for African agricultural skills in the Americas.

Diverse groups of Africans from the coastal regions were highly skilled at clearing and cultivating forest land, an expertise that was unknown to Europeans at the time. One African technique involved burning delineated sections of forest and later using the ash for fertilizer, this had to be done carefully. Many also knew how to raise crops in semi-tropical and tropical soils; high temperatures and heavy rains cause nutrients to seep out more quickly than they do in temperate climates.

The complex art of rice cultivation practiced by West Africans for centuries rescued the U.S. The technique and technology used for rice cultivation was unknown by Europeans outside of southern Italy at the time. Rice cultivation was one of the most difficult types of work one could do, working in knee-deep water every day. By 1750, South Carolina became the rice-growing center of North America; rice was the colony’s major export. Other crops introduce by Africans include, black-eyed peas, pumpkins, sesame seeds, kola nuts, cotton, yams, sorghum, muskmelon, and water-melon.

The agricultural skills of Africans and African-Americans garnered extraordinary wealth for the Americas and Europe.

List of Crops Introduced by Africans/African-Americans

black-eyed peas

pumpkins

sesame seeds

kola nuts

cotton

yams

sorghum

muskmelon

water-melon

okra

tania

kidney beans

lima beans

millet

red peas

Source:

http://www.nypl.org/locations/schomburg

http://slaverebellion.org/index.php?page=crops-slave-cuisines

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/03/140301-african-american-food-history-slavery-south-cuisine-chefs/

 Part 1: http://sincereignorance.com/2015/01/27/africans-and-the-making-of-the-americas-part-1-exploration/

Part 2: http://sincereignorance.com/2015/01/27/africans-and-the-making-of-the-americas-part-2-mining/

Part 3: http://sincereignorance.com/2015/02/03/africans-and-the-making-of-the-americas-part-3-herding/

Africans and The Making of the Americas: Part 2, Mining

Mining

The first great source of wealth for the Americas came from gold, silver and diamond mines of Mexico, Peru, and Brazil. Their products, when shipped to Europe fueled the growth of a mercantile capitalist economy. Many of the Africans coming to the Americas had lived in gold mining areas such as Bambuk, Bure or the Akan country of the Gold coast, and they had considerable experience in shaft mining and panning for gold in waterways. Though they were usually outnumbered by Native Americans in the mines of Mexico and Bolivia, African miners were in great demand and were granted special privileges. In the Minas Gerais region of 20,000 in 1710 to 100,000 in 1735-in the 1750’s, about 60% of the Africans arriving in port of Salvador de Bahia were assigned to work in the mine of the interior. Work in the mines were brutality hard and few men survived more than a dozen years. On the other hand miners were often allowed to prospect on their own after meeting a specified quota; in this way, many Black miners were able to accumulate enough capital to purchase their own freedom.

In the U.S, coal from eastern Virginia became an essential commodity during the late 18th century, and much of the mining was done by African Americans. A French traveler who visited a Virginia mine in 1796 reported that the owner knows very little of the operation and depended on 500 enslaved miners to make the venture work. The Black Heath Pits, which produced the highest quality coal in the region, employed large numbers of Black men, who were often entrusted with the most difficult and complex tasks, such as operating the steam engines at the pitheads.

In 1858, a company of 600 African American gold miners made some successful strikes in California, only to find that new legislation deprived them of the right to own property or to give evidence in a court of law against Whites, while requiring them to wear special badges that identified them as “Coloreds”. These newly wealthy miners organized an emigration society and moved to British Columbia, Canada, where the governor guaranteed them the rights and protection of all the other citizens.

Sources

Book: Schomburg Center For Research in Black Black Culture, African American Desk Refernce

http://www.wvencyclopedia.org/articles/25

http://www.workers.org/2006/us/black-miners-0202/

Africans and The Making of the Americas: Part 1, Exploration

The greatest majority of the Africans of the diaspora are in the Western Hemisphere, scattered among the Spanish, French, and English-speaking countries of the Americas. The role played by the people of African descent in the building of America was not merely substantial, but indispensable, prompting, the historian Frank Tannenbaum, in his classic 1947 study Slave and Citizen. Describing the creation of contemporary American culture as a “joint Afro-European enterprise”.

Contrary to popular belief, African American history did not start with slavery in the New World. An overwhelming body of new evidence is emerging which proves that Africans had frequently sailed across the Atlantic to the Americas, thousands of years before Columbus and indeed before Christ. The great ancient civilizations of Egypt and West Africa traveled to the Americas, contributing immensely to early American civilization by importing the art of pyramid building, political systems and religious practices as well as mathematics, writing and a sophisticated calendar.

The strongest evidence of African presence in America before Columbus comes from the pen of Columbus himself. In 1920, a renowned American historian and linguist, Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa and the discovery of America, explained how Columbus noted in his journal that Native Americans had confirmed that “black skinned people had come from the south-east in boats, trading in gold-tipped spears.”

Exploration

Africans traveled with some of the first European explorers of the Americas. Some even becoming famed explorers themselves. Although the Spanish Chronicles indicate that numerous Africans accompanied the Conquistadors on their expeditions throughout the Americas, many of their names have been lost to time and rarely recorded.  Among the exceptions was Esteban also known as Estevanico or Little Stephen. He was an African man from the interior of Africa, captured by North African slave traders and lived in Morocco before reaching Spain. Esteban was gifted at languages spoke more than a dozen Native American tongues.

 One of the first explorers of the Southwestern among other territories in the United States (outside of Native American people of course). His tales of the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola led to the famous expedition of Francisco Coronado in 1540.

After being shipwrecked Estevanico and 3 other survivors lived on the Isle of Misfortune off the Texas coast as slaves but after a year escape to the mainland.

Estevanico was viewed as a medicine man by the Avavares tribe.

In 1536 Estevanico was given his freedom.

Coronado later discovered that the so called 7 cities of gold were actually Zuni pueblos that shone like gold when viewed from afar.

 Of the 44 settlers who founded pueblo of Nuestra Senora de Los Angeles, at least 26 were of African descent. By the end of the 20th century, nearly 20% of California’s residents were Black. As our country started to move Westward, African Americans were the vanguard. People such as the African American trapper Peter Ranne (Member of first U.S party to reach California), Moses Harris (First non-Native American to explore the Great Salt Lake), legendary mountaineers like James Beckwourth, and Edward Rose (traveled much of what is now known as Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado). Beckwourth was also an adopted member of the Crow People who were located a pass through the Sierra Nevada and lead the first wagon train through it. The pass now bears his name. Of course there is much more to learn, think of this as a gateway.

Let us also not forget the original founder of the Americas; the Native people themselves. 

http://www.wlcsd.org/Loonlake.cfm?subpage=1499981http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404702043.htmlhttp://www.rense.com/general43/before.htm

http://www.globalresearch.ca/before-columbus-how-africans-brought-civilization-to-america/5407584

http://www.nps.gov/ethnography/aah/aaheritage/SpanishAmB.htm

Sources

Generate Comix: Dark Matter

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GENERATE COMIX was created to generate, highlight and develop new science fiction, speculative fiction, fantasy & horror from our Cultural and personal Vantage points. Our goal is to bring creatives together to generate exciting new comics, graphic novels, illustrated screenplays and film properties. In short, to generate the next level of Urban pop Entertainment/culture. Our principle team of creatives are…

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