Henry T. Sampson: Gamma Electric Cell

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On July 6, 1971, Sampson was awarded a patent with George H. Miley for the invention of the gamma-electric cell, a direct-conversion energy device that converts the energy generated from the radiation of high-energy gamma rays into electricity.

Other patents include a binder system for rocket propellants and explosives and a case-bonding system for cast-composite rocket propellants, both related to the manufacturing and production of solid-propellant rocket motors.

https://engineering.purdue.edu/Engr/People/Awards/Institutional/DEA/DEA_2013/Sampson

http://www.google.com/patents/US3591860

Charles Richard Drew: The Blood Bank

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Academy of Medicine in May of 1941, he specifically mentions the pioneering work of Henry Bowditch, a physiologist who was aware of plasma’s potential as early as 1871. The same article also pays tribute to an English physician named Ward, who suggested the use of plasma for battlefield transfusions during World War I.

Still, Drew and several other researchers worked to refine liquid plasma preservation techniques. Having obtained a four-month leave from Howard University in September of 1940, he got off to a brisk start, instituting a system of rigorous processing in a central laboratory so that the sterility of all donated blood could be controlled. Drew later relieved the community hospitals of their constant donor traffic by introducing the idea of a refrigerated mobile blood bank.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bmjuli.html

http://www.blackpast.org/aah/drew-charles-r-1904-1950

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/drew_hi.html

Frederick McKinley Jones:Refrigerated Inventions

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Frederick McKinley Jones (1893?-1961) was known for his mechanical aptitude and his curious and inventive mind. Largely self educated, Jones invented the first refrigerated transport system. This made it possible to ship food via plane, truck, boat or train anywhere in the world without it perishing.

Ticket Dispensing Machine
Removable Cooling Unit for Compartments.
Automatically Starting and Stopping Gas Engine.
Two-Cycle Gas Engine.
Two-Cycle Gas Engine.
Removable Cooling Unit for Compartments.
Preventing Frosting of Evaporator Heat Exchangers.
Air Conditioning Unit.
Starter Generator.
Means Operated by a Starter Generator for Cooling a Gas Engine.
Thermostatically Operating Gas Engine.
Rotary Compressor.
System for Controlling the Operation of Refrigeration Units.
Apparatus for Heating or Cooling the Atmosphere Within an Enclosure.
Two-Cycle Internal-Combustion Engine.
Prefabricated Refrigerator Construction.
Refrigeration Control Device.
Locking Mechanism.
Method and Means for Air Conditioning.
Method and Means of Defrosting a Cold Diffuser.
Method and Means for Preserving Perishable Foodstuffs in Transit.
Control Device for Internal Combustion Engine.
Thermostat and Temperature Control System.

https://webfiles.uci.edu/mcbrown/display/jones_patents.html

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Frederick_McKinley_Jones.aspx

Percy Lavon Julian: Pioneering Chemist

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Known as the “soybean chemist” for his extraordinary success in synthesizing innovative drugs and industrial chemicals from natural soya products, Percy Lavon Julian was an internationally acclaimed scientist whose discoveries earned him more than 130 chemical patents and a host of professional awards. Among his most important contributions were the creation of a synthetic version of cortisone, a drug used to relieve the pain and inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis, and physostigmine, prescribed to alleviate the effects of glaucoma—a disease of the eye that can cause blindness if left untreated. Julian’s work with soybeans and soya derivatives also led to the mass production of the male and female hormones testosterone and progesterone and the development of a powerful firefighting chemical called Aero-Foam, used by the U.S. Navy during World War II. The first African American to direct a modern industrial laboratory, he spent 17 years with the Glidden Company in Chicago before leaving to establish his own successful pharmaceutical enterprise, Julian Laboratories, Inc.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Percy_Lavon_Julian.aspx

Percy Julian synthesized physostigmine for treatment of glaucoma; and synthesizedcortisone for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Percy Julian is also noted for inventing a fire-extinguishing foam for gasoline and oil fires.

http://inventors.about.com/od/ijstartinventors/a/PercyJulian.htm

Julian held more than 100 chemical patents, wrote scores of papers on his work, and received dozens of awards and honorary degrees. He founded The Julian Laboratories, Inc., with labs in the U.S. and Mexico (both purchased by Smith Kline French in 1961) and another chemical plant in Guatemala (owned by Upjohn Company since 1961). In 1951, Julian and his family moved to Oak Park, Illinois, becoming the first black family to live there. His house was firebombed twice, but the community largely backed him and today celebrates his birthday as a holiday.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bmjuli.html

George E. Alcorn: X-Ray Spectrometer

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The question of whether or not life exists on other planets has intrigued people for centuries. Physicist George Edward Alcorn Jr. figured out how to find out. In 1984 Alcorn and his colleagues patented a device to detect extraterrestrial life: the imaging X-ray spectrometer. This device is one of dozens that Alcorn has invented over the years, and the one with the most popular appeal. That’s not to say Alcorn’s other work isn’t interesting. It is. But George Edward Alcorn is an atomic and molecular physicist, and his work is very complex. In addition to Alcorn’s work detecting planetary life, he has also studied missile trajectory and orbits, invented components for semiconductors, designed instruments used in space, and created devices to detect atmospheric contaminants, among other things. For his work Alcorn has won the esteem of his colleagues and his industry’s top awards, including NASA’s Inventor of the Year Award in 1984.

http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/4472728.html

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2694400008.html

Patricia Bath: Cataract Laserphaco Probe

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In 1981, Bath began working on her most well-known invention: the Laserphaco Probe (1986). Harnessing laser technology, the device created a less painful and more precise treatment of cataracts. She received a patent for the device in 1988, becoming the first African-American female doctor to receive a patent for a medical purpose. (She also holds patents in Japan, Canada and Europe.) With her Laserphaco Probe, Bath was able to help restore the sight of individuals who had been blind for more than 30 years.

http://www.biography.com/people/patricia-bath-21038525#pioneer-in-ophthalmology

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/changingthefaceofmedicine/physicians/biography_26.html

http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/inventors/bath.htm

Garrett Morgan: Modern Gas Mask

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In 1914, Morgan patented a breathing device, or “safety hood,” providing its wearers with a safer breathing experience in the presence of smoke, gases and other pollutants. Morgan worked hard to market the device, especially to fire departments, often personally demonstrating its reliability in fires. Morgan’s breathing device became the prototype and precursor for the gas masks used during World War I, protecting soldiers from toxic gas used in warfare. The invention earned him the first prize at the Second International Exposition of Safety and Sanitation in New York City.

http://www.biography.com/people/garrett-morgan-9414691#ga-morgan-hair-refining-company

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/morgan_hi.html

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Garrett_Morgan.aspx

http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/garrett-morgan-inventor-one-first-traffic-lights

March Hannah:3-D Graphics Technology

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I see there is still a lot of ignorance, pertaining to the Scientific inventions and discoveries of people who aren’t White. Here on Sincere Ignorance, I will be doubling down on Black inventors; some known and others not at all. In fact, it will not be exclusively inventions from people of African descent. I will broaden this out to other ethnic groups as well.

What He Invented: 3-D Graphics Technology Used in Films.

Why It’s Important: Anyone awed by the special effects in the films Jurassic Park, Terminator 2 and The Abyss should thank Chicago-native Marc Hannah. The computer scientist is one of the founders, in 1982, of the software firm Silicon Graphics (now SGI), where the special-effects genius developed 3-D graphics technology that would be used in many Hollywood movies.

-Alanta Blackstar

Hannah created computer programs like Personal IRIS, Indigo, Indigo2, and Indy graphics that were used to create effects for movies like Jurassic Park, Aladdin, Beauty and the Beast, The Hunt for Red October, and Field of Dreams. George Lucas’ Industrial Light & Magic used Silicon Graphics’ technology to create Terminator 2.

But according to Hannah, all this high-profile business brings in only approximately 15 percent of SGI’s overall revenues. The same 3-D technology is also used in less glamorous fields, by engineering and medical research companies, for example, for tasks ranging from designing cars and airplanes to analyzing gene sequences and creating “designer drugs.” The military even uses SGI’s equipment for visual simulations in its training programs.

For more on March Hannah, you can go to these sites:

http://www.thehistorymakers.com/biography/marc-hannah-41

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2871200031.html

http://www.idvl.org/sciencemakers/Bio27.html

Emmit J. McHenry and Albert White: Inventor of .Com

In 1979, Emmit McHenry and a few associates start an engineering company name Network Solutions. For 16 years, he and his partners toiled away and built a solid company. They could not get money from the financial institute so they mortgage their properties and max out their credit cards. They were good engineers and got many contracts but the gem within Network Solutions was a contract with the National Science Foundation, which was to create the U.S. Government’s and World first domain name addressing system for the Internet. This was back when the Internet was just a government project, and its commercial potential hadn’t been realized.

Read more: http://www.blackinventions101.com/blackinventors.html

http://www.thehistorymakers.com/biography/emmit-j-mchenry-38

Years before Google, before tablets, heck, before the Internet was a popular term, and even before the first domain name was offered to the general public, a predominantly African-American team actually once controlled the Internet; or at least your domain access to it.  Few may know it today, but Al White was a vital part of that team and still thinks longingly about those heady days when sink or swim business decisions were made by the minute and when untold amounts of money were within grasp’s reach — if they just could have held out long enough.

http://thegrio.com/2012/06/28/black-founders-of-internet-domain-registry-network-solutions-reminisce-on-racial-barriers-in-tech-sector/

Dr. George Carruthers: NASA

Scientist George Carruthers created inventions, such as the ultraviolet camera, or spectograph, which was used by NASA in the 1972 Apollo 16 flight, revealing the mysteries of space and the Earth’s atmosphere.

Read morehttp://www.biography.com/people/george-carruthers-538794

http://www.thehistorymakers.com/biography/george-carruthers-41

http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/george-carruthers-credit-his-profession

http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news-releases/2013/dr-george-carruthers-honored-with-national-medal-of-technology-and-innovation

 

 

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