What does it mean to be Black and the misconception of Gay people?

Black in Latin America

In world history these two western regions were the first areas of the Americas to be populated by African immigrants. Yet wherever possible, they prepared and accepted reality with the African immigration to the Americas may have begun before European exploration of the area. African slave trading began before Columbus, and the earliest Spanish and Portuguese explorers. The most direct route from West Africa to the (then) New World was to what we now know as Brazil. Through the 15th and 16th centuries, slavery then moved up the coast of South America through the Caribbean. In fact today the largest population of African people outside of the African continent is in Brazil. The explorers were likewise accompanied by Black Africans who had been born and reared in Iberia. In the following four centuries millions of immigrants from Africa were brought to the New World in servitude.

Today, their descendants form significant ethnic minorities in several Latin American countries, and they are the dominant element in many of the Caribbean nations. Over the centuries, Black people have added their original contributions to the cultural mix of their respective societies and thus exerted a deep influence on all facets of life in Latin America. A strong African influence saturates music, dance, the arts, literature, speech forms, and religious practices in Latin America and the Caribbean. Africans, whether as slaves or free immigrants, brought a variety of African cultural influences to the New World. They came from so many places in Africa and were too scattered throughout the Americas to reestablish all the conditions of their homelands.

http://hutchinscenter.fas.harvard.edu/afro-latin-american-research-institute

http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/blacks-latin-america-brief-history

Slavery’s Exiles

Music by Lauryn Hill

Banjo Ancestors and Its Origin

Though many people think that the banjo is the all-American instrument, born and developed in the good ol’ U. S. of A., they’re only telling you a partial truth and a very small part of the whole story. What they are thinking of is the 5-string banjo donned by such greats as Earl Scruggs and Bela Fleck. It’s the most prevalent type of banjo in many popular styles of American music such as Bluegrass, Dixieland, and Country, so naturally, being exposed to no other types of banjos, one would assume that the 5-string IS the banjo.

In reality the banjo originated hundreds of years ago somewhere on the African continent. These instruments were quite simple and rough – an animal skin tacked on to a hollowed half of a gourd with three or four strings stretched over a planed stick (keep in mind, too, that there were no such things as frets back then). The strings were often made from waxed horsehair or gut. One name for this instrument was the banjar. (Isn’t it interesting that the pronunciation of this native-African word from ages ago is still being used by the back-woodsy American folk of today?) Anyway…

The story of the banjo begins in the 17th century when African slaves in the New World began making and playing lute-type string instruments with drum-like gourd bodies. In 1678, the French colonial government of Martinique restated an edict issued twenty four years earlier prohibiting African slaves from gathering together for dances and socializing. The new ordinance specified kalendas. More commonly known as la calinda(also calenda), the kalenda was a social gathering of slaves in which they danced dances of clear African origin to the accompaniment of a drum or two and the banza. (In later years, some reports also mentioned the inclusion of the violin in a typical calinda band.)

Eleven years later, Sir Hans Sloane wrote the first report of the early banjo which gave a description of the instrument. In the account of his 1687 sojourn through the West Indies (written in 1689 but not published until 1707), Sir Hans described the “Negroes” in Jamaica as playing strum-strums, which were “Instruments in imitation of Lutes, made from small Gourds fitted with Necks, strung with Horse hairs, or the peeled stalks of climbing Plants or Withs.”

http://www.musicfolk.com/docs/Features/Feature_Banjo.htm

http://www.shlomomusic.com/banjoancestors_earlybanjos.htm

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/banjo

Slave Revolts; The Gullah, Maroon, and Black Seminoles

“The Gullah Wars”

 (1739 – 1858)

The Seminole Wars/The 100 Years War


Gullah People:

http://www.claritypress.com/files/KlyVI.html
http://yale.edu/glc/gullah/index.htm
http://yale.edu/glc/gullah/index.htm

http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/arts-culture/geechee-and-gullah-culture

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/10/141017-gullah-geechee-heritage-corridor-lowcountry-coast-sea-islands-sweetgrass/

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/06/0607_wiregullah.html

http://gullahtours.com/

Maroon People:

Nanny, leader of the Windward Maroons is something of a mysterious figure in Jamaican historiography. Situated somewhere between mystic and martyr, rebel and myth, the former slave and military leader nevertheless occupies a place of great importance and reverence in Jamaica. The current and continuous debates concern not the existence of Nanny, but her level of participation in Maroon battles and the range and extent of her leadership. Priestess, warrior, spirit figure, Queen Mother�was she all of these things? Was she any?

http://scholar.library.miami.edu/slaves/Maroons/maroons.html

http://discoveringbristol.org.uk/slavery/against-slavery/black-resistance-against-slavery/the-maroons-of-jamaica/

http://www.yale.edu/glc/nanny.htm

http://www.blackpast.org/gah/queen-nanny-maroons-1733

Black Seminoles:

http://www.yale.edu/glc/gullah/07.htm

http://www.johnhorse.com/black-seminoles/black-seminole-slave-rebellion.htm

http://www.johnhorse.com/black-seminoles/faq-black-seminoles.htm

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmb18

http://peoplesworld.org/the-forgotten-rebellion-of-the-black-seminole-nation/

Sources:

Aptheker,
Herbert. (1939). Maroons Within the Present Limits of the United States.
Journal of Negro History, 24, 167-184

Aptheker, Herbert. (1974). American Negro Slave Revolts (New ed.). New York,
NY: International Publishers. (Original work published 1943).

Baird, Keith E. & Twining, Mary A. (1980, June). Guy B. Johnson Revisited:
Another Look at Gullah. Journal of Black Studies, 10, 425-435.

Bascom, William. (1941, January-March). Acculturation Among the Gullah Negroes.
American Anthropologist, 43, 43-50.

Bascom, William. (1991). Gullah Folk Beliefs Concerning Childbirth. In Mary A.
Twining & Keith E. Baird (Eds.), Sea Island Roots (p. 27-36). Trenton, NJ:
Africa World Press.

Berry, Mary Frances. (1971). Black Resistance/White Law: A History of
Constitutional Racism in America. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts
Educational Division, Meredith Corporation.

Boyd, Mark F. (1951, July). The Seminole War: Its Background and Onset. Florida
Historical Quarterly, 30, 3-115.

Brown, Wille James. (1956). The Negro and the Seminole Wars. Unpublished
Master’s Thesis, Florida A & M University.

Coe, Charles. (1974). Red Patriots: The Story of the Seminoles. Gainesville,
FL: University of Florida Presses. (Original work published 1898).

Covington, James. W. (1966, July). Episode in the Third Seminole War. Florida
Historical Quarterly, 45, 45-59.

Covington, James. W. (1982). The Billy Bowlegs War: 1855-1858 The Final Stand
of the Whites. Chuluota, FL: The Mickler House Publishers.

Craven, Frank Wesley. (1971). White, Red, and Black: The Seventeenth-Century
Virginian. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.

Creel, Margaret Washington. (1990). Gullah Attitudes Toward Life and Death. In
Joseph E. Holloway (Ed.), Africanisms in American Culture (p. 69-97).
Bloomington, IN: Indiana Press.

Cromartie, J. Vern (1984). Gullah Strata People: Historical Notes on the
Geechees. Unpublished Master’s Paper, California State University, Hayward.

Cromartie, J. Vern (nee Jimmie Levern Cromartie). (1987, December). Maroons and
Other Forms of Slave Resistance Within the Present Limits of Georgia,
1733-1865: A Chronology. Unpublished Master’s Special Project, California State
University Hayward.

Davis, T. Frederick (1930, October; 1931a, January; 1931b, April). United
States Troops in Spanish East Florida, 1812-1813 Part IV. Florida Historical
Quarterly

Deagan, Kathleen, & Landers, Jane. (1999). Fort Mose: Earliest free
African-American Town in the United States. In Theresa A. Singleton (Ed.),
“I, Too, Am America”: Archeological Studies in African-American Life
(p. 261-282). Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.

Foster, Laurence. (1978). Negro-Indian Relationships in the Southeast. New
York, NY:AMS (Original work published 1935).

Giddings, Joshua R. (1858). The Exiles of Florida: Or, the Crimes Committed
Against the Maroons who Fled from South Carolina and other Slave States Seeking
Protection Under Spanish Laws. Columbus, OH: Follet, Foster and Co.

Goggin, John M. (1946). The Seminole Negroes of Andros Island, Bahamas. Florida
Historical Quarterly, 24, 201-206.

Hancock, Ian. (1986). On the Classification of Afro-Seminole. In Michael B.
Montgomery & Guy Bailey (Eds.), Language variety in the South: perspectives
in the Black and White (p. 85-101). University, AL: University of Alabama
Press.

Harding, Vincent. (1981). There is a River: The Struggle of Black Freedom in
America. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Johnston, James Hugo. (1929, January). Documentary Evidence of the Relations of
Negroes and Indians. Journal of Negro History, 14, 37-40.

Katz, William Loren. (1986). Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. New York, NY:
Atheneum.

Kly, Yussuf N. (1998). The Gullah War: 1739-1858. In Marquetta L. Goodwine and
The Clarity Press Gullah Project. (Eds.), The Legacy of Ibo Landing: Gullah
Roots of African American Culture (p. 19-53). Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, Inc.

Kly, Yussuf N. (1999, May/June). The Gullah Wars: The Hidden American
Anti-Slavery War… Islamic Horizons, 28, 42, 45.

Krogman, Wilton Marion. (1934, October). The Racial Composition of the Seminole
Indians of Florida and Oklahoma. Journal of Negro History, 19, 421-422).

Littlefield, Daniel F. (1979). Africans and Creeks: from the Colonial Period to
the Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Milliganm John D. (1974, Spring). Slave Rebelliousness and the Florida Maroon.
Prologue, 6.

Morse, Jedidia. (1822). A Report to the Secretary of War of the United States
on Indian Affairs.

The “Negro Fort” massacre

http://libcom.org/history/negro-fort-massacre



 

Facts and Fallacies About Slavery/Discrimination In The USA

1) Native Americans were the first slaves in the Americas and the Caribbeans. In addition to some Native tribes owning slaves like the Cherokee, but not the majority of Native American people. A few did so to help enslaved runaways , and some out of maliciousness.

2) There were mostly European Indentured servants in the U.S. ( mostly Scottish and Irish), during the late 1400’s to early 1600’s and people wonder why this isn’t taught.

There are quite a few reasons why White indentured servants is skipped over

A) Since Whites were collectively deemed the superior race by the 50’s in the U.S/globally by pseudo Scientists and Anthropologists; to them, teaching this portion of history would conflict with their theories. After all; the inferior race were Negroes, and they are only condemned into life long servitude.

By the 50’s the Irish, Scottish and Italians were deemed White. Many of our U.S presidents were from Scottish, Irish and Welsh descent.

The Irish, Southern Europeans and Eastern Europeans weren’t deemed White until later. The Irish were called White niggers for example, before they reached the status of truly being White. The concept of White that is.

3) Many of the Irish were shipped to North America and the Caribbean, due to false claims of crime and the false belief of them being inferior. Eventually they would be classified as Nordic and one of the top classes of the White race.

Once the Irish were no longer considered a cross between Negroid and Caucasian (both asinine terms), the owners decided they didn’t like nor wanted a continuous relationship between the Irish and West African people. A hierarchy was now put into place; before Eastern and Southern Europeans were seen as dirty, stupid and lazy compared to Anglo-Saxons. When the ruling Social Elites realized, they could make a unified front on Whiteness (during the great migration of Eastern/Southern/Northern European migration), they proceeded to make the census.

Europeans, North Africans, and The Middle East were deemed White. They were now the top of the hierarchy. This is why many North Africans proclaimed that Saharan Africans were never the original people of North Africa, or contributed to its’ creation. That is why many Scientists/Anthropologists deemed the ancient Egyptians White. That is why those same people deemed Ethiopians as dark Caucasians. Basically, any civilization that pivoted the Human race forward was deemed Caucasian. Saharan Africans and anyone of African descent were deemed inferior and could never intermingle with the higher race.

This is extremely complex; notice how most of it doesn’t make any sense, but this is how many people thought back then (some still do). North Africans are people of Saharan African descent (Berbers), and later mixed with Middle Eastern Arabs, and different European groups. But I shall continue; this perception was carried out globally.

Some North Africans believed Saharan Africans were inferior and tried to wipe them out of history texts. In South America; Mexico tried to erase the fact that their second President and first Vice President was half West African. (Vicente Ramón Guerrero)

In Cuba; one of their Revolutionary heroes was Black, Antonio Maceo Grajales. (Cuba’s Independence from Spain) White Anthropologists lightened portraits and illustrations of him; deeming him to be purely White European. After Cuba’s independence from Spain; they were united ethnically. The illusion and artificial conception of race eluded them. Joe Marti stated he wasn’t going to fall for Spain’s racial games and stated “Cuba for Cuban’s”. Fast forward to when Bastisa was president; American/European ideals on race spread globally. Although Bastisa was of African descent himself; he created laws to make life harder for Cuban’s of predominantly African descent. He allowed Anthropologist to claim Antonio was purely White European, he allowed immigration solely to White Europeans into Cuba. The racial illusion was so bad, that 97% of Cubans who immigrated to the U.S identified themselves as White.   In the Dominican Republic; president Rafael Trujillo, declared anyone who admitted they were Black would be imprisoned or killed. In a island where about 90% of their citizens were heavily of African descent. Trujillo’s himself; his grandmother being Haitian. He openly stated he was inspired by Hitler’s vision of racial purity and superiority. He permed his hair religiously, determined to not let any signs of his African roots show on his face. To him; advancing the Dominican Republic, meant Whitening it up.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-13560512

This concept happened in Brazil, Argentina, Columbia, etc, again globally. Someone asked a question on here previously, “Why is Black slavery so important or why the lack of focus on other forms of slavery?” The answer should be obvious; it isn’t the 300 years of slavery that make people of African descent history uniquely different, it is all that came afterwords. The Jim Crow laws, being seen as the race at the bottom, a hybrid between Ape and Human as Darwin stated. The fact that people of African descent were put in zoos with apes/monkeys. Many committing suicide after, while hundreds of people previously watched; not saying anything.

This happening in the Bronx: http://mentalfloss.com/article/30399/1906-bronx-zoo-put-black…

The experiments, the Tuskegee sterilization; giving Syphilis to Black men. Most dying and passing the disease to their wives; only three men survived, eugenics and experimentation. Being erased from the history books and having every facet of your identity and heritage taken away, from ancient to modern. Having Black face, and other propaganda programmers broadcast globally; from Japan to Egypt.

http://www.uow.edu.au/~bmartin/dissent/documents/AIDS/

Yes; almost every ethnic group has gone through trials and tribulations, being lied about, slavery, at one point or another. Pertaining to those of African descent; not the same duration and to be hit from every aspect at once. I can’t say any other ethnic group, besides Native Americans have gone through that. If so, I would like for someone to enlighten me. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2957.html

http://www.sodahead.com/united-states/why-is-only-black-slave…

The fact remains; if society had let go of its’ bigotry towards those of African descent, like they did with the Scottish, Irish, and Italians we all wouldn’t be so polarized by the illusion of race. We wouldn’t even be having this conversation.

4) Indentured servants only worked for a certain amount of years and were free to be on their own when their contract was up.

5) There were free people of African descent in Americas, before the Atlantic slave trade started.

6) Some people of African descent owned other people of African descent; over 99.9% did so, because it guaranteed their enslaved relatives safety. Free Negroes (term for historical purposes) bought their relatives for protection.

Example

http://www.vvdailypress.com/articles/later-33884-justice-year… http://books.google.com/books?id=ptFqye_hg54C&pg;=PA76&lpg;=P…

After Peyton Polly, his brother, and his son were freed in Kentucky, his brother purchased Peyton’s seven other sons and daughters. Evidently this tactic was common. The reunited family moved to Ohio, a free state, for safety. Three years later armed White men from Kentucky kidnapped the children, ages 4-17. Peyton could not risk going after the men himself. He put his trust in the legal system, and eventually the intervention of many Ohio politicians managed to free four of the children. Virginia refused to free the others, who remained enslaved for over a decade until ‘The Emancipation Proclamation” was passed.

7) Anthony Johnson was not the first slave owner.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/responses/spotlight.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slave…

http://www.slavenorth.com/mas…

All before Anthony Johnson.

8) Black Americans and people of African descent were the major factor that ended slavery in the Western world. From slaves revolts, majority of Black people being Abolitionists, Maroons, Gullahs, Black Seminoles, Cuban’s revolution, Haiti’s revolution, etc.

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