What does it mean to be Black and the misconception of Gay people?

Black in Latin America

In world history these two western regions were the first areas of the Americas to be populated by African immigrants. Yet wherever possible, they prepared and accepted reality with the African immigration to the Americas may have begun before European exploration of the area. African slave trading began before Columbus, and the earliest Spanish and Portuguese explorers. The most direct route from West Africa to the (then) New World was to what we now know as Brazil. Through the 15th and 16th centuries, slavery then moved up the coast of South America through the Caribbean. In fact today the largest population of African people outside of the African continent is in Brazil. The explorers were likewise accompanied by Black Africans who had been born and reared in Iberia. In the following four centuries millions of immigrants from Africa were brought to the New World in servitude.

Today, their descendants form significant ethnic minorities in several Latin American countries, and they are the dominant element in many of the Caribbean nations. Over the centuries, Black people have added their original contributions to the cultural mix of their respective societies and thus exerted a deep influence on all facets of life in Latin America. A strong African influence saturates music, dance, the arts, literature, speech forms, and religious practices in Latin America and the Caribbean. Africans, whether as slaves or free immigrants, brought a variety of African cultural influences to the New World. They came from so many places in Africa and were too scattered throughout the Americas to reestablish all the conditions of their homelands.

http://hutchinscenter.fas.harvard.edu/afro-latin-american-research-institute

http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/blacks-latin-america-brief-history

Impact of Mexican Culture on America; American Mexican Part 2


Vicente Guerrero was the foremost surviving military hero of Mexico’s wars of independence, and one of the few great figures who had fought for independence throughout the entire period of 1810 to 1821, when many other military and political leaders changed sides repeatedly. He served with distinction in the first two governments of independent Mexico, and then in 1829 became the second president of the republic. As a son of the fabledtierra caliente, the hot region of the south between the Río Balsas and the Pacific coast, he was descended from the African slaves of colonial Mexico and also from the indigenous people.”

“He was one of the population that in the colonial era were variously called pardos (black) or castas (caste), or simply mulatto. Theodore Vincent’s use of the term “Black Indian” is irregular in terms of conventions of Mexican usage; and it would probably be better if the term does not catch on. Guerrero’s only legitimate child, Dolores, married Manuel Riva Palacio, and they founded a racially mixed family which produced generations of distinguished statesmen and scholars. One of their sons was Vicente Riva Palacio, a major historian in the nineteenth century, who is a secondary focus of this book. In 1849 Guerrero’s home region was separated out from three other states to become the state of Guerrero, the first Mexican state to be named after a person.

HISTORY

The earliest inhabitants of Mexico are believed to have been hunters who migrated from Asia approximately 18,000 years ago. Over time, these early peoples built highly organized civilizations, such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Mayan, Toltec, Zapotec, Mixtec, and Aztec societies, the majority of which were accomplished in art, architecture, mathematics, astronomy, and agriculture. In 1517 Spanish explorer Francisco Fernández de Córdoba discovered the Yucatán, a peninsula located in the southeast of Mexico. By 1521 the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortéz had managed to conquer the Aztec empire, the most powerful Indian nation in Mexico at the time. For the next 300 years, Mexico, or New Spain, would remain under colonial rule.

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Mexican-Americans.htm…

Music and Dancing

Mexican Americans are fun loving and music is an essential part of their existence. Corridos and Mariachis and many other kinds of singing have evolved over the past many hundred years. Living in America doesn’t mean for them to forget their songs and festivities. Their various dances including Jarabe Tapatío (commonly known as Tap Dance) and Salsa have gained much popularity all around the world and the Mexican Americans are keeping it alive in America as well.

Read more: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gal…


Impact of Mexican Culture on America; American Mexican

 

Part 1. Personally I love the influence and fabric of all cultures that have created the United States of America. I Love American Mexican culture; I love the food, the music, the language, the history and their diverse background.

The history of the United States is incomplete without the inclusion of the story of Mexican Americans. Mexican Americans are often called the forgotten people because of their lack if inclusion in history books. “When they are included, they are often portrayed in either a negative light or as a caricature or stereotype, which only adds to the lack of understanding about Mexican Americans. Mexican Americans represent a very large and important part of our society and they are not newcomers.” (Dr. T. Pérez)

Even when they are grouped together with other “Hispanics,” they make up the largest number. “Most of them live in the Southwest for historical reasons, many have been there for centuries, even before the Anglo-Americans, some migrated during the Mexican Revolution of 1910 and others are still making their way into the United States because of the availability of work that is not present in their country. They go by many names depending upon their region or their politics: Mexicans, Mexican Americans, Hispanics, Latinos, Chicanos, Californios, Tejanos, and Manitos are but a few of the names, but they are basically the same people with a common language or culture that binds them.” (Dr. T. Pérez)

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Mexican-Americans.html

 

In 1994, there were 26.4 million Hispanic Americans living in the Continental United States: 64 percent Mexican Americans, almost 11 percent Puerto Ricans, over 13 percent were from Central and South America and the Caribbean, almost 5 percent were Cuban Americans, 7 percent classified as “other.” An additional 3.7 million were Puerto Ricans living on the island of Puerto Rico, bringing the nation’s total Hispanic American population to over 30 million. Although Hispanic Americans live in every part of the United States, they are more heavily concentrated in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, New Mexico, New York, Puerto Rico, and Texas. Mexican Americans. Today, while the majority of Mexican Americans live in urban areas, significant numbers comprise the three agricultural migrant streams that flow from the south to the north across the country, often twice annually.

Historically, Mexican Americans have been both an urban and rural population. Since the 1600s, Mexicans were the first Americans to establish homesteads in the territories that became Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. Since before the turn of the century, Mexican Americans literally built the great southwestern cities of Los Angeles, San Diego, Tucson, Albuquerque, Dallas, and San Antonio. Also, in the 1800’s, Mexican American workers participated significantly in the massive industrial expansion in the midwest, from Kansas to Michigan, by building the railroad systems and steel mills. Few Mexican American families, however, received formal education. As Mexican Americans began to attend public schools in significant numbers, starting early in the 20th Century, students faced discrimination due to language, socio-economic, and cultural barriers.

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Mexican-Americans.html

The History of the Vaquero

Rooted in necessity and shaped by the land, the Mexican cowboy tradition influenced the origin of cowboys.

1519–1700s

After the Spanish arrived in Mexico in 1519, ranches were established and stocked with cattle and horses imported from Spain. Landowners mounted native Indians on well-trained horses and taught them to handle cattle. By the early 1700s, cattle ranching had spread north into what is now Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico and south to Argentina. The native cowboys were called vaqueros(from the Spanish word for cow) and developed roping skills, using braided rawhide reatas (the root word for lariat). Starting in 1769, a chain of 21 Franciscan missions eventually stretched from San Diego to San Francisco, marking the beginning of California’s livestock industry.

Mid–1700s to 1820s

Livestock production flourished in California and the Southwest, but few markets existed for end products such as meat, hides, and tallow (for making candles). By the mid-1700s, long trains of pack mules would transport these products to Mexico City and return with supplies. American ships began servicing California ports in the early 1800s and traded for the same materials. For the first time, ranchers had local markets for their animals. Huge roundups were held to collect cattle, and the hard-riding vaqueros controlled the chaos. Known for expert horsemanship and roping skills, vaqueros were said to only dismount for a chance to dance with pretty girls.

Early and mid-1800s

Ranching ceased to be a strictly Hispanic profession as more Americans poured into once Mexican-held lands (especially after the Mexican/American War, 1846–48). The Anglo newcomers adapted to the vaquero style, and many settlers intermarried with the old Spanish ranching families. The 1849 gold rush brought even more people to California, which increased the demand for beef. Californios rode ponies that had been trained in a hackamore, swung a big loop with their hand-braided rawhide reatas, and took a wrap called a dally (from the Spanish dar la vuelta, to take a turn) around high saddle horns for leverage when roping cattle.

Late 1800s

As the livestock industry expanded, these horsemen found work in Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii, taking their equipment and livestock-handling techniques with them. Cowboys in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada remained strongly Hispanic (“buckaroo” comes from vaquero), including the use of a center-fire rigged saddle, in which rigging is situated below the centerpoint of the saddle; a long reata; and silver-mounted spade bits. Trail-driving Texans adopted many of their techniques from Mexican vaqueros, carrying their methods with them north through the Plains states and leading to a subculture of single, itinerant men who worked at ranches.

Read more: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/08/0814_030815_c…

 

Hispanic Roots

One out of every three cowboys in the late 1800s was the Mexican vaquero, says Kendall Nelson, a photographer from Idaho whose recent book, Gathering Remnants: A Tribute to the Working Cowboy, showcases the few remaining cowboys of the West. Nelson is currently working on a documentary of the same title, capping an eight-year documentation of the last cowboys.

The story of Nelson’s photos and Costner’s Open Range really begins in the Southwest, two decades before the pilgrims landed in 1620 on Plymouth Rock, when adventurous criollos (Spanish-born Americans) and mestizos (mixed Spanish and Indian settlers) pushed past the Rio Grande River to take advantage of land grants in the kingdom of New Mexico, which included most of the western states.

All of the skills, traditions, and ways of working with cattle are very much rooted in the Mexican vaquero,” Nelson told National Geographic News. “If you are a cowboy in the U.S. today, you have developed what you know from the vaquero.

Read more: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/08/0814_030815_c…

Facts and Fallacies About Slavery/Discrimination In The USA

1) Native Americans were the first slaves in the Americas and the Caribbeans. In addition to some Native tribes owning slaves like the Cherokee, but not the majority of Native American people. A few did so to help enslaved runaways , and some out of maliciousness.

2) There were mostly European Indentured servants in the U.S. ( mostly Scottish and Irish), during the late 1400’s to early 1600’s and people wonder why this isn’t taught.

There are quite a few reasons why White indentured servants is skipped over

A) Since Whites were collectively deemed the superior race by the 50’s in the U.S/globally by pseudo Scientists and Anthropologists; to them, teaching this portion of history would conflict with their theories. After all; the inferior race were Negroes, and they are only condemned into life long servitude.

By the 50’s the Irish, Scottish and Italians were deemed White. Many of our U.S presidents were from Scottish, Irish and Welsh descent.

The Irish, Southern Europeans and Eastern Europeans weren’t deemed White until later. The Irish were called White niggers for example, before they reached the status of truly being White. The concept of White that is.

3) Many of the Irish were shipped to North America and the Caribbean, due to false claims of crime and the false belief of them being inferior. Eventually they would be classified as Nordic and one of the top classes of the White race.

Once the Irish were no longer considered a cross between Negroid and Caucasian (both asinine terms), the owners decided they didn’t like nor wanted a continuous relationship between the Irish and West African people. A hierarchy was now put into place; before Eastern and Southern Europeans were seen as dirty, stupid and lazy compared to Anglo-Saxons. When the ruling Social Elites realized, they could make a unified front on Whiteness (during the great migration of Eastern/Southern/Northern European migration), they proceeded to make the census.

Europeans, North Africans, and The Middle East were deemed White. They were now the top of the hierarchy. This is why many North Africans proclaimed that Saharan Africans were never the original people of North Africa, or contributed to its’ creation. That is why many Scientists/Anthropologists deemed the ancient Egyptians White. That is why those same people deemed Ethiopians as dark Caucasians. Basically, any civilization that pivoted the Human race forward was deemed Caucasian. Saharan Africans and anyone of African descent were deemed inferior and could never intermingle with the higher race.

This is extremely complex; notice how most of it doesn’t make any sense, but this is how many people thought back then (some still do). North Africans are people of Saharan African descent (Berbers), and later mixed with Middle Eastern Arabs, and different European groups. But I shall continue; this perception was carried out globally.

Some North Africans believed Saharan Africans were inferior and tried to wipe them out of history texts. In South America; Mexico tried to erase the fact that their second President and first Vice President was half West African. (Vicente Ramón Guerrero)

In Cuba; one of their Revolutionary heroes was Black, Antonio Maceo Grajales. (Cuba’s Independence from Spain) White Anthropologists lightened portraits and illustrations of him; deeming him to be purely White European. After Cuba’s independence from Spain; they were united ethnically. The illusion and artificial conception of race eluded them. Joe Marti stated he wasn’t going to fall for Spain’s racial games and stated “Cuba for Cuban’s”. Fast forward to when Bastisa was president; American/European ideals on race spread globally. Although Bastisa was of African descent himself; he created laws to make life harder for Cuban’s of predominantly African descent. He allowed Anthropologist to claim Antonio was purely White European, he allowed immigration solely to White Europeans into Cuba. The racial illusion was so bad, that 97% of Cubans who immigrated to the U.S identified themselves as White.   In the Dominican Republic; president Rafael Trujillo, declared anyone who admitted they were Black would be imprisoned or killed. In a island where about 90% of their citizens were heavily of African descent. Trujillo’s himself; his grandmother being Haitian. He openly stated he was inspired by Hitler’s vision of racial purity and superiority. He permed his hair religiously, determined to not let any signs of his African roots show on his face. To him; advancing the Dominican Republic, meant Whitening it up.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-13560512

This concept happened in Brazil, Argentina, Columbia, etc, again globally. Someone asked a question on here previously, “Why is Black slavery so important or why the lack of focus on other forms of slavery?” The answer should be obvious; it isn’t the 300 years of slavery that make people of African descent history uniquely different, it is all that came afterwords. The Jim Crow laws, being seen as the race at the bottom, a hybrid between Ape and Human as Darwin stated. The fact that people of African descent were put in zoos with apes/monkeys. Many committing suicide after, while hundreds of people previously watched; not saying anything.

This happening in the Bronx: http://mentalfloss.com/article/30399/1906-bronx-zoo-put-black…

The experiments, the Tuskegee sterilization; giving Syphilis to Black men. Most dying and passing the disease to their wives; only three men survived, eugenics and experimentation. Being erased from the history books and having every facet of your identity and heritage taken away, from ancient to modern. Having Black face, and other propaganda programmers broadcast globally; from Japan to Egypt.

http://www.uow.edu.au/~bmartin/dissent/documents/AIDS/

Yes; almost every ethnic group has gone through trials and tribulations, being lied about, slavery, at one point or another. Pertaining to those of African descent; not the same duration and to be hit from every aspect at once. I can’t say any other ethnic group, besides Native Americans have gone through that. If so, I would like for someone to enlighten me. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2957.html

http://www.sodahead.com/united-states/why-is-only-black-slave…

The fact remains; if society had let go of its’ bigotry towards those of African descent, like they did with the Scottish, Irish, and Italians we all wouldn’t be so polarized by the illusion of race. We wouldn’t even be having this conversation.

4) Indentured servants only worked for a certain amount of years and were free to be on their own when their contract was up.

5) There were free people of African descent in Americas, before the Atlantic slave trade started.

6) Some people of African descent owned other people of African descent; over 99.9% did so, because it guaranteed their enslaved relatives safety. Free Negroes (term for historical purposes) bought their relatives for protection.

Example

http://www.vvdailypress.com/articles/later-33884-justice-year… http://books.google.com/books?id=ptFqye_hg54C&pg;=PA76&lpg;=P…

After Peyton Polly, his brother, and his son were freed in Kentucky, his brother purchased Peyton’s seven other sons and daughters. Evidently this tactic was common. The reunited family moved to Ohio, a free state, for safety. Three years later armed White men from Kentucky kidnapped the children, ages 4-17. Peyton could not risk going after the men himself. He put his trust in the legal system, and eventually the intervention of many Ohio politicians managed to free four of the children. Virginia refused to free the others, who remained enslaved for over a decade until ‘The Emancipation Proclamation” was passed.

7) Anthony Johnson was not the first slave owner.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/responses/spotlight.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slave…

http://www.slavenorth.com/mas…

All before Anthony Johnson.

8) Black Americans and people of African descent were the major factor that ended slavery in the Western world. From slaves revolts, majority of Black people being Abolitionists, Maroons, Gullahs, Black Seminoles, Cuban’s revolution, Haiti’s revolution, etc.

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