NC Greensboro’s Black Community Comes Together

black-co-op-community

For almost two decades, the residents who live in a predominantly African-American Greensboro neighborhood didn’t have a place to shop for food. The community tried to attract the attention of a popular grocery store, but when that plan didn’t work, they decided to open their own store.

Read more: http://atlantablackstar.com/2015/11/2…

J. Cole: Someone Who Does More Action than Talk

One of the most endearing aspects of J. Cole’s 2014 Forest Hills Drive release was the rapper’s willingness to both literally and figuratively invite fans into his childhood home. Now, Cole is apparently taking it a step further and recently announced plans to use the house as a rent-free haven for single mothers with multiple children.

http://theurbandaily.com/2015/01/27/jcole-2014-forest-hills-drive-single-mothers/

J. Cole: Apparently

http://www.amazon.com/2014-Forest-Hills-Drive-Explicit/dp/B00PJHY3PW

2014 Forest Hills Drive: J.Cole

Slave Revolts; The Gullah, Maroon, and Black Seminoles

“The Gullah Wars”

 (1739 – 1858)

The Seminole Wars/The 100 Years War


Gullah People:

http://www.claritypress.com/files/KlyVI.html
http://yale.edu/glc/gullah/index.htm
http://yale.edu/glc/gullah/index.htm

http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/arts-culture/geechee-and-gullah-culture

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/10/141017-gullah-geechee-heritage-corridor-lowcountry-coast-sea-islands-sweetgrass/

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/06/0607_wiregullah.html

http://gullahtours.com/

Maroon People:

Nanny, leader of the Windward Maroons is something of a mysterious figure in Jamaican historiography. Situated somewhere between mystic and martyr, rebel and myth, the former slave and military leader nevertheless occupies a place of great importance and reverence in Jamaica. The current and continuous debates concern not the existence of Nanny, but her level of participation in Maroon battles and the range and extent of her leadership. Priestess, warrior, spirit figure, Queen Mother�was she all of these things? Was she any?

http://scholar.library.miami.edu/slaves/Maroons/maroons.html

http://discoveringbristol.org.uk/slavery/against-slavery/black-resistance-against-slavery/the-maroons-of-jamaica/

http://www.yale.edu/glc/nanny.htm

http://www.blackpast.org/gah/queen-nanny-maroons-1733

Black Seminoles:

http://www.yale.edu/glc/gullah/07.htm

http://www.johnhorse.com/black-seminoles/black-seminole-slave-rebellion.htm

http://www.johnhorse.com/black-seminoles/faq-black-seminoles.htm

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bmb18

http://peoplesworld.org/the-forgotten-rebellion-of-the-black-seminole-nation/

Sources:

Aptheker,
Herbert. (1939). Maroons Within the Present Limits of the United States.
Journal of Negro History, 24, 167-184

Aptheker, Herbert. (1974). American Negro Slave Revolts (New ed.). New York,
NY: International Publishers. (Original work published 1943).

Baird, Keith E. & Twining, Mary A. (1980, June). Guy B. Johnson Revisited:
Another Look at Gullah. Journal of Black Studies, 10, 425-435.

Bascom, William. (1941, January-March). Acculturation Among the Gullah Negroes.
American Anthropologist, 43, 43-50.

Bascom, William. (1991). Gullah Folk Beliefs Concerning Childbirth. In Mary A.
Twining & Keith E. Baird (Eds.), Sea Island Roots (p. 27-36). Trenton, NJ:
Africa World Press.

Berry, Mary Frances. (1971). Black Resistance/White Law: A History of
Constitutional Racism in America. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts
Educational Division, Meredith Corporation.

Boyd, Mark F. (1951, July). The Seminole War: Its Background and Onset. Florida
Historical Quarterly, 30, 3-115.

Brown, Wille James. (1956). The Negro and the Seminole Wars. Unpublished
Master’s Thesis, Florida A & M University.

Coe, Charles. (1974). Red Patriots: The Story of the Seminoles. Gainesville,
FL: University of Florida Presses. (Original work published 1898).

Covington, James. W. (1966, July). Episode in the Third Seminole War. Florida
Historical Quarterly, 45, 45-59.

Covington, James. W. (1982). The Billy Bowlegs War: 1855-1858 The Final Stand
of the Whites. Chuluota, FL: The Mickler House Publishers.

Craven, Frank Wesley. (1971). White, Red, and Black: The Seventeenth-Century
Virginian. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.

Creel, Margaret Washington. (1990). Gullah Attitudes Toward Life and Death. In
Joseph E. Holloway (Ed.), Africanisms in American Culture (p. 69-97).
Bloomington, IN: Indiana Press.

Cromartie, J. Vern (1984). Gullah Strata People: Historical Notes on the
Geechees. Unpublished Master’s Paper, California State University, Hayward.

Cromartie, J. Vern (nee Jimmie Levern Cromartie). (1987, December). Maroons and
Other Forms of Slave Resistance Within the Present Limits of Georgia,
1733-1865: A Chronology. Unpublished Master’s Special Project, California State
University Hayward.

Davis, T. Frederick (1930, October; 1931a, January; 1931b, April). United
States Troops in Spanish East Florida, 1812-1813 Part IV. Florida Historical
Quarterly

Deagan, Kathleen, & Landers, Jane. (1999). Fort Mose: Earliest free
African-American Town in the United States. In Theresa A. Singleton (Ed.),
“I, Too, Am America”: Archeological Studies in African-American Life
(p. 261-282). Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.

Foster, Laurence. (1978). Negro-Indian Relationships in the Southeast. New
York, NY:AMS (Original work published 1935).

Giddings, Joshua R. (1858). The Exiles of Florida: Or, the Crimes Committed
Against the Maroons who Fled from South Carolina and other Slave States Seeking
Protection Under Spanish Laws. Columbus, OH: Follet, Foster and Co.

Goggin, John M. (1946). The Seminole Negroes of Andros Island, Bahamas. Florida
Historical Quarterly, 24, 201-206.

Hancock, Ian. (1986). On the Classification of Afro-Seminole. In Michael B.
Montgomery & Guy Bailey (Eds.), Language variety in the South: perspectives
in the Black and White (p. 85-101). University, AL: University of Alabama
Press.

Harding, Vincent. (1981). There is a River: The Struggle of Black Freedom in
America. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Johnston, James Hugo. (1929, January). Documentary Evidence of the Relations of
Negroes and Indians. Journal of Negro History, 14, 37-40.

Katz, William Loren. (1986). Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. New York, NY:
Atheneum.

Kly, Yussuf N. (1998). The Gullah War: 1739-1858. In Marquetta L. Goodwine and
The Clarity Press Gullah Project. (Eds.), The Legacy of Ibo Landing: Gullah
Roots of African American Culture (p. 19-53). Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, Inc.

Kly, Yussuf N. (1999, May/June). The Gullah Wars: The Hidden American
Anti-Slavery War… Islamic Horizons, 28, 42, 45.

Krogman, Wilton Marion. (1934, October). The Racial Composition of the Seminole
Indians of Florida and Oklahoma. Journal of Negro History, 19, 421-422).

Littlefield, Daniel F. (1979). Africans and Creeks: from the Colonial Period to
the Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Milliganm John D. (1974, Spring). Slave Rebelliousness and the Florida Maroon.
Prologue, 6.

Morse, Jedidia. (1822). A Report to the Secretary of War of the United States
on Indian Affairs.

The “Negro Fort” massacre

http://libcom.org/history/negro-fort-massacre



 

Black Durham (Black Wall Street in Durham, NC)

http://statelibrary.ncdcr.gov/ghl/themes/february.html

Stories of Racial Profiling in Durham

Henry P. Cheatham: American History

Born into slavery in Henderson, North Carolina, Henry Cheatham was the child of an enslaved domestic worker about who little is known.  An adolescent after the American Civil War, Cheatham benefited from country’s short lived commitment to provide educational opportunities to all children.  He attended public school where he excelled in his studies.  After high school Cheatham was admitted to Shaw University, founded for the children of freedmen, graduating with honors in 1882.  He earned a masters degree from the same institution in 1887.

During his senior year of college, Cheatham helped to found a home for African American orphans.  In 1883, Cheatham was hired as the Principal of the State Normal School for African Americans, at Plymouth, North Carolina.  He held the position for a year when his career as an educator gave way to his desire to enter state politics.
Cheatham ran a successful campaign for the office of Registrar of Deeds at Vance County, North Carolina in 1884, and he served the county for four years.   He also studied law during his first term in office, with an eye toward national politics.  In 1888 Henry Cheatham ran for Congress as a Republican in North Carolina’s Second Congressional District.  He defeated his white Democratic opponent, Furnifold M. Simmons.

Cheatham entered the Fifty-first U.S. Congress and would be returned to office again in 1890.  As a United States Congressman, Cheatham supported Henry Cabot Lodge’s Federal Elections Bill sponsored by representatives who wished to end election violence against African American voters.  Although Cheatham’s efforts helped the measure pass in the House of Representatives, the Lodge bill was killed in the U.S. Senate.  Later, Cheatham sponsored an unsuccessful bill requiring Congress to appropriate funds for African American participation at the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893.  Cheatham wanted the fair’s visitors to see the demonstrable progress African Americans had made since the end of slavery.

– See more at: http://www.blackpast.org/aah/cheatham-henry-plummer-1857-1935#sthash.DoLj0L5f.dpuf

http://www.northcarolinahistory.org/encyclopedia/529/entry

Other noteworthy people to look into:

James E. O’hara

John Adams Hyman

Search Engine: 

https://www.google.com/search?sa=X&es_sm=93&biw=1600&bih=799&q=henry+cheatham&stick=H4sIAAAAAAAAAGOovnz8BQMDgwYHsxCnfq6-gWm2cWW2EpiZllyZXa7FF5BaVJyfF5yZklqeWFk8RcVZe9E6z8u3__5PyDaYuCUqOtcbACMOPEpFAAAA&ei=eWJpVJaaKoqNyATInYB4&ved=0CPABEMQNMBo#q=mary+burnett+talbert&stick=H4sIAAAAAAAAAGOovnz8BQMDgwYHsxCnfq6-gWm2cWW2EpiZlGtgmq7FF5BaVJyfF5yZklqeWFmsVO1x-LSK7N_t88-zBLx4eTb9_m1TAIuNgDRFAAAA

George Henry White: American History

George H. White’s bold legislative proposals combating disfranchisement and mob violence in the South distinguished him from his more reserved contemporaries. The lone African–American Representative at the dawn of the 20th century, White spoke candidly on the House Floor, confronting Booker T. Washington’s call to work within the segregated system. The onslaught of white supremacy in his home state assured White that to campaign for a third term would be fruitless, and he departed the chamber on March 3, 1901. It would be 28 years before another black Representative set foot in the Capitol. “This, Mr. Chairman, is perhaps the negroes’ temporary farewell to the American Congress,” White declared in his final months as a Representative, “but let me say, Phoenix–like he will rise up someday and come again.”1

http://history.house.gov/People/Detail?id=23657

http://www.blackpast.org/1901-george-h-whites-farewell-address-congress

Alexander Manly

Alex Manly was editor of the Daily Record, a black newspaper from Wilmington, North Carolina at the time of the Wilmington Riot in 1898.  Manly was born near Raleigh, North Carolina in 1866.  He was reportedly a descendent of Governor Charles Manly and Corrine Manly, a former slave in the governor’s household.  Alex Manly and his brothers were educated at Hampton Institute, and in 1895 he took over Wilmington’s leading black newspaper, the Daily Record with the help of his brother, Frank.

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